1625 - 1629
1630 - 1635
1635 - 1648
24 October 1648

Peace Of Westphalia

Major Events Timeline

The Defenestration of Prague

The Defenestration of Prague was a pivotal event that triggered the Bohemian Revolt and set off the Thirty Years' War. Following the Bohemian Estates' protest against Catholic reforms, tensions boiled over, leading to the defenestration where two Catholic officials were thrown out of a window. This act of resistance symbolized the deep religious and political divisions within the Holy Roman Empire and marked the beginning of widespread conflict.

The Battle of White Mountain

The Battle of White Mountain was a decisive confrontation that occurred near Prague in 1620. It resulted in a resounding victory for Catholic forces under the command of the Habsburgs, effectively crushing the Bohemian Revolt and restoring Catholic dominance in Bohemia. The defeat of Protestant armies at White Mountain had far-reaching consequences, solidifying Habsburg control over the empire and emboldening Catholic powers.

The Danish Phase

The Danish Phase of the Thirty Years' War saw Denmark intervening in an attempt to support Protestant interests and challenge Habsburg dominance. King Christian IV of Denmark led a military campaign against the Habsburgs but was ultimately defeated by the Catholic League and Imperial forces. The Peace of Lübeck in 1629 marked the end of Danish involvement and further strengthened the position of Catholic forces.

The Swedish Phase

The Swedish Phase of the war began with Sweden's entry into the conflict under the leadership of King Gustavus Adolphus. Gustavus Adolphus, known as the "Lion of the North," scored significant victories against Catholic forces, notably at the Battle of Breitenfeld and the Battle of Lützen. His military prowess and innovative tactics expanded Swedish influence in northern Germany and provided hope for Protestant resistance.

The French Phase

The French Phase of the Thirty Years' War saw France, under the guidance of Cardinal Richelieu, intervening against the Habsburgs and their allies. Richelieu, motivated by French interests and a desire to weaken the Habsburgs, supported Protestant powers and entered the war directly. France's involvement transformed the conflict into a broader European war, with battles fought across multiple fronts

Peace negotiations began

By 1644, after decades of brutal warfare and widespread devastation, exhaustion had set in among the warring parties, leading to diplomatic efforts to negotiate a peace settlement. Various European powers, exhausted by the conflict's toll on their resources and populations, sought to end the war through negotiations rather than continued bloodshed.

The Peace of Westphalia

The Peace of Westphalia, signed in 1648, brought an end to the Thirty Years' War and reshaped the political landscape of Europe. The peace settlement consisted of the Peace of Münster and the Peace of Osnabrück, which established new principles of international diplomacy. Among its key provisions were the recognition of state sovereignty, religious tolerance, and territorial adjustments aimed at restoring stability to the war-torn continent.