2024
2024
1940s
1960s
2024
2024
2024
2005 forward
2011 Forward

CTE History

Brief History of CTE and Sports Related Concussions

Martland's "Punch Drunk" Paper

  • Presented a paper on "Post-concussion Neurosis-Traumatic Encephalitis," challenging the idea that concussion is a transient state without structural cerebral injury

  • Highlighted the possibility of long-term consequences

Martland's "Punch Drunk" Paper

  • Detailed neurocognitive and neurobehavioral issues in 23 professional boxers

  • Coined the term "Punch Drunk" to describe fighters known to be affected by repeated head trauma

Denny-Brown and Russell

  • Conducted laboratory experimentation with rats, and theorized that cerebral concussion's effects are at the level of individual neurons

  • Sir Charles Symonds theorized that concussion resulted from the stretching or compression of neurons

Early Onset Dementia in Boxers

  • Boxers like Quarry, Young, and Ellis developed early-onset dementia after prolific careers due to repetitive brain trauma. The relatively quick downfall of their health trajectories despite being elite and intelligent athletes raised many questions

Roberts' study on Ex-Boxers (1969)

  • Examined the prevalence of traumatic encephalopathy in ex-professional boxers in Britain

  • Identified clinical features of CTE in living subjects

Corsellis et al.

  • Autopsies on 15 boxers identified 4 neuropathological features of CTE

  • Established criteria for CTE diagnosis, including:

    • Abnormalities of septum pellucidum, cerebellar scarring, substantia nigra degeneration, and neurofibrillary tangles

Ommaya and Gennarelli

 

  • Subjected primates to concussive forces, identifying diffuse axonal injury in the brains

  • Influenced legal requirements for automobile seat belt use in the U.S. automotive industry

Expansion of CTE Research to Football

  • A wave of lawsuits related to SRC began in 2011, involving various sports organizations such as the NFL and NCAA

  • Concerns about SRC and its long-term effects have persisted as a clinical concern

Sports-Related Concussion Lawsuits

  • A wave of lawsuits related to SRC began in 2011, involving various sports organizations such as the NFL and NCAA

  • Concerns about SRC and its long-term effects have persisted as a clinical concern

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